Story | Centre for Science and Environment


The politics of "meaningful participation": how meaningful is meaningful?

A. Will the US ratify the protocol? India and China hold the key


CSE Briefing Paper 2 The Kyoto protocol — to cut carbon emissions in industrialised countries in order to avert global warming — is increasingly being understood not as an environmental agreement but a trading agreement. Speakers at a recently organised symposium by the World Trade Organisation noted that Protocol could well be the most significant trading agreement of the century. Under the protocol, industrialised countries are expected to cut their overall carbon emissions by at least 5 per cent below 1990 levels in the commitment period, 2008 to 2012.


Why is it necessary to move towards the 'ultimate objective' of the Framework Convention on Climate Change?

CSE Statement by Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain

Article 13: Role and powers of the Conference of Parties/Meeting of Parties

The COP, which is the supreme body of the FCCC, will also serve as the Meeting of Parties (MOP) of the Kyoto Protocol. Nations which have become parties to the FCCC but not yet parties to KP can participate as observers in the MOP. Apart from undertaking decisions mandated to it by the KP, the MOP will regularly review the implementation of the KP and take decisions to promote its effective implementation.

Briefing Kyoto6

12.10 Acquisition period: Certified emissions reductions (CERs) can be obtained from 2000 upto the beginning of the first commitment period, that is, 2008, and these CERs can be used to achieve compliance in the first commitment period from 2008 to 2012.

This provision has been criticised by several experts as a loophole which is called Superheated Air. Only emissions reduced within the commitment period should be taken into account. It reduces the impact of the KP in addressing the build-up of greenhouse gases and thus addressing the problem of climate change.

Article 11: Implementation of the Protocol including provisions for advancing the implementation of existing commitments of developing countries

In order to implement this Article, all nations must take into account Article 4, paragraphs 4, 5, 7, 8 & 9 of the FCCC. Article 4.4 says that all developed countries should assist developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting costs of adaptation to those adverse effects.

Article 7: National Communications and the information to be contained in it

Article 12 of the FCCC states all parties should provide a national communications to the FCCC secretariat.

Article 7 of the KP says that Annex 1 parties must add the following information in their national communications:

  • The necessary supplementary information needed for ensuring compliance with the emissions reduction objectives set out in Article 3. This information will be incorporated in the annual inventory of anthropogenic emissions. This information will be provided annually beginning with the first year after the KP has entered into force.

Briefing Kyoto3

Article 4: Provisions which allow industrialised countries to form a bubble

Briefing Kyoto

3.5 & 3.6: Flexibilities for countries with economies in transition

Article 2: Activities that Annex 1 countries should take to meet their commitments

2.1 This sub-paragraph lists a number of activities that Annex 1 nations can undertake to achieve their "quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments" (QUELROS). These activities are:

  • enhancement of energy efficiency;

  • protection and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol and promotion of sustainable forest management, afforestation and reforestation;

  • promotion of sustainable agriculture;

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