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From Down to Earth magazine
Mining firms set up shop in Orissa
Lanjigarh block, Kalahandi, Orissa, May 17: At its summit, the north-eastern ridge of the Niyamgiri hill range has a bald patch, typical of hilltops with bauxite deposits. A dense tree cover that provides a welcome shade to climbers struggling some 8 km up the steep forest path gives way to a vast stretch of open grassland. A leopard silently pads across the open expanse. Up here, all is at peace. But short-lived.

It is environmental, political and human rights activists and local people vs a multi-million dollar company, Vedanta Resources Plc. that wants to tear apart the hilltop for what lies beneath, and a state government eager to hand over its mineral treasures to private companies. The final decision rests with the Supreme Court. Stakes are high, on all sides.
Down to Earth, July 15, 2007
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Making India's mining sector socially and environmentally viable
A government committee wants regime change to facilitate private investment in mining. What it is oblivious of is the need for more regulation to protect the environment and people displaced and impoverished. Travelling through some of the worst affected areas in Orissa DTE looks at the options that can make the sector viable—industrially, socially and environmentally.
DTE, April 30, 2007
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Rivers Shankhini and Dankini in Chhattisgarh run dirty
The waters of rivers Shankhini and Dankini is part viscous bog and part a molten brown liquid that resembles something straight out of Willy Wonka’s scrumptious chocolate factory but is sure to taste quite the opposite. No, I didn’t attempt to taste. These waters, I wouldn’t recommend dipping a toe in, let alone taking a drink from it. Yet people from about 100 villages on the banks of the rivers use it for most of their daily needs. Shankhini emerges from the Bailadila mountain range, which is known for its high quality iron ore deposits, and Dankini meets the river downstream. DTE tries to understand what is the cause for water transforming into this brown viscous liquid.
DTE, December 31, 2006
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Red alert in Chhattisgarh
Land acquisition is at the centre of intense political and social disputes in the tribal hinterland of Chhattisgarh. Naxal extremists enforce their version of justice by opposing land alienation. But the new state has its compulsion — industrialisation. That is when the Salwa Judum movement started: moving tribal people out of their land to expose rich subterranean resources. DTE discovers the nuances of the struggle.
DTE, October 31, 2006
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Theirs to mine?
This is the question angry and beleaguered tribals in Orissa and Jharkhand are asking, as mining companies set up shop in the midst of their land and forests, rooting to uproot them.
In 1993, the government of India began to deregulate the mining sector. States rich in mineral wealth, such as Orissa and Jharkhand, literally took up the call to ‘open up’. Agog, private mining interests queued up. Awed, state governments went on a spree, signing one joint venture after another. The states seem proud to venture on as the repressive arm of projects hell-bent on meeting production deadlines. The Centre looks on, blind.
April 15, 2005
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Red alert in nuclear India
India’s pampered nuclear power programme is losing steam. Uranium stocks are almost over; people won’t let the government dig new mines; all projects are running late and new technology is almost impossible to get, as decommissioning reactors is the trend world over. Is the Indian nuclear establishment’s target of 20,000 MW by 2020 just a fantasy?
DTE, April 30, 2004
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Coal dust, fly ash and slurry
How has the river that flows through one of the most industrialised regions in India fared since it was first written about in 1993? Down to Earth revisits the coal dust and slurry-ridden Damodar basin to see if anything has changed - for better or worse.
DTE, March 15, 2003
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Consigned to flames
“Abandon all hope, all ye who enter" This inscription that marks the gates of hell in Dante’s Inferno could well be true for Jharia town in Jharkhand. For, the underground fires that have been raging in the coalfields here for over several decades are now beginning to engulf its thickly inhabited areas as well. And for the local people — trapped between officialdom and realpolitik — mere existence now means hell on earth. DTE explores.
DTE, November 30, 2002
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Poor little rich states
Rich in natural resources but extremely poor, the three new states are in need of a new strategy for development. For the people of the three states the struggle for statehood was strung around the battle for rights over "jal, jungle, jamin" (water, forests and land) - the axis around which their life revolves. The new states have to deliver on these three issues. But the signs are ominous. No blueprints have been drawn so far. DOWN TO EARTH reports on the posers thrown up by the birth of Chattisgarh, Uttaranchal and Jharkhand.
DTE, January 15, 2001
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Nationalised nightmare
One of the main reasons given for nationalising the coalmines of India was to protect workers from accidents. What followed was large-scale destruction of the environment. Now, the danger is not just from accidents that kill. For the residents of coal towns, the future is like a tunnel with no light at the end. Only coal. And accidents. Down To Earth takes a fresh glance at life and death in some of India’s coal towns.
DTE, July 15, 2000
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Blogspots
Golublog is an anthropology blog with information on mining and indigenous communities in Australia.
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Chronicle of a Canadian woman’s hunger strike aimed at preventing uranium mining in Ontario.
click here
 
The Community Coalition Against Mining Uranium is a group of concerned citizens in Ontario, Canada.
click here
 
PICA blog discusses community-level opposition to a Canadian mining company in El Salvador.
click here
 
Blog detailing indigenous people’s struggle in North America, against coal mining.
click here
 
Black Mesa Indigenous Support operates on the Navajo Reservation in the Western U.S. and has had some success opposing mining projects in the area.
click here
 
A photojournalist details the harsh evictions of a community in Guatemala at the hands of a foreign mining company.
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On community resistance to a silver mine in El Salvador.
click here
 
A collection of articles discussing a violent confrontation between community-level activists and paramilitary pro-mining force in Bangladesh.
click here
 
On solidarity movement in Columbia opposing gold mining.
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On many contemporary political issues, including community activism against uranium mining.
click here
 
Comprehensive blog from the Philippines with updated information about mining resistance.
click here
 
Megh Barta is an online forum for activism that includes details on mining resistance in South Asia
click here
 
A site produced by Appalachian Voices, which demonstrates the disturbing impacts of mountaintop removal in Appalachia.
click here
 
On the proposed construction of a new power plant near the Four Corners area of New Mexico.
click here
 
A community coalition of Australians, with affiliates in North American and the U.K., opposing the increase in use of coal as it contributes to global warming.
click here
 
RNCOS provides industry-specific blogs, including a blog on the energy sector. Although pro-corporate, the site does provide useful information on the expansion of coal mining in India.
click here
 
Grist, an important environmental blog, tackles the clean coal debate in developing countries and questions the tactic India should adopt.
click here
 
News on resistance to bauxite mining among tribals in Orissa.
click here
 
Petition to the Chief Justice of India - opposition to bauxite mining in Orissa.
click here
 
Discussion on the consequences of displacement from coal mining in Orissa.
click here
 
Bhumkal Bastar is a blog detailing various injustices in Orissa, including mining developments.
click here
 
On steel and coal development in Orissa.
click here
 
Discussion of sand mining in Kerala.
click here
 
About seabed mining that also discusses opposition to sand mining in Tamil Nadu.
click here
 
With a focus on tourism, also talks of the hidden costs of mining in the state.
click here
 
Coverage of an anti-mining rally in Goa.
click here
 
About development and mining in Northeastern India.
click here
 
Importance of mining sector for the Indian economy.
click here

 
‘Anil Agarwal Dialogue on Mining, People and Environment’-April 26-27, 2007

This two-day event was a precursor to the sixth Citizen’s Report ‘Rich lands, poor people: Is sustainable mining possible?’ Commencing with a media-briefing workshop, attended by 30 journalists, mining experts and grass root organizations from all over the country. The participants presented case studies from their states and the issues related to mining.

This was followed by stakeholder dialogue on April 27, 2007, attended by representatives from government, regulators, civil society, industry and journalists. The first session of the dialogue was on mining and environment, chaired by special secretary, union ministry of mines. The topics that were discussed in the session included mining regulations and regulatory capacity, forest clearances and ‘no-go’ areas and mine closure. Secretary, Union ministry of tribal affairs, chaired the second session on social and economic issues in mining.

On recommendations of Hoda Committee on the National Mineral Policy, Down To Earth published an in-depth story 30 April, 2007

List of Media fellows
Anupama Kumari
Anupama Kumari is a news writer with the Ranchi based Hindi daily Prabhat Khabar. She has published 10 stories with thrust on displaced tribal villages of Kolhan in West Singhbaum and special focus on problems of women and children, loss of livelihood due to mining activities. Her stories have pushed local NGOs and journalists to take up the cause of women in areas affected by mining.

Brajakishor Mishra
Brajakishor Mishra is a freelance journalist working as a special correspondent with Hindustan Samachar. He contributes to various Oriya media organisations like the leading Oriya daily, The Samaja and has been writing on development issues for the past 25 years. Brajakishor’s study focussed on the environmental degradation caused by mining in Keonjhar and the anticipated impact and protests in Kalahandi districts of Orissa.

Ejaz Kaiser
Ejaz Kaiser has been with the Hindustan Times since 2000. He has been covering a wide range of issues including forest, wildlife and environment, mining, political events, crime and tribal issues. Ejaz’s proposal focussed on mining in different regions in Chattisgarh, the state’s mineral policy; and tribals; success stories from mining industry; environmental and health impacts of mining.

Kulsum Talha
Kulsum Talha is a freelance journalist who has worked with the Northern India Patrika, the Times of India, the Indian Express, Doordarshan and All India Radio where she has scripted programmes on youth, women and social issues. She proposed to look at the mining activities in the Sonbhadra area, with focus on the pollution and the lack of health and sanitation facilities. Her point of interest was to cover influence of naxalism in the region and corporate social responsibility.

M T Shivakumar
M T Shivakumar is a staff correspondent with Prajavani and has been associated with leading Kannada dailies like Udayavani and Mysooru Mithra. He covered the special task force operation against Veerappan. He proposed to study iron ore mining in Bellary. His study included illegal mining, mine mafia, involvement of politicians, child labour in mines, labour safety, impact on World Heritage sites and other health and environmental issues.

Mahesh Chadra Joshi
Mahesh Chadra Joshi is an assistant editor with Hindi fortnightly Nainital Samachar and an activist. Mahesh proposed to study mining in different regions in Uttaranchal. His focus was on the mining money in politics and politicians who have risen to influential posts with the help of mining industry. Water scarcity due to magnesite mining, impact on agriculture and changes in socio-cultural set up in villages due to mining activities were other areas of his study.

Raju D Nayak
Raju D Nayak is a senior development journalist with the Marathi daily Loksatta, of the Indian Express group and has been associated with Rashtramat and Mumbai Sakal. His study dealt with the effects of mining on agriculture land, drinking water supplies in Goa, pollution of rivers, mining in Western Ghats and impacts on surrounding sanctuaries. He also studied success stories of mining companies that have tried to solve these problems.

Ratna Bharali Talukdar
Ratna Bharali Talukdar is a freelance journalist from Assam and has worked with The Times of India and the Press Information Bureau, Guwahati. She focussed on the impact of coal mining on the environment of Tinsukia (the flora and fauna in the adjoining ecosystem) and the ill effects on the health of locals. Tangsa village, which caved in due to mining, also formed a part of her study.

Sasidharan Mangathil
Sasidharan Mangathil is a sub editor with the Malayalam daily Mathrubhumi. He was awarded the Jaiji Peter Foundation fellowship for the study of landslides and its environmental impacts in Kerala in 2002. He proposed to study mineral sand mining in Kerala and its impacts on fishing and livelihood of fishing communities, beach erosion and coastal ecology, and the impact on Vembanad and Ashtamundi lakes.

Sunny Sebastian
Sunny Sebastian is a senior journalist from Rajasthan, working with The Hindu since 1986. He received the first Pandit Jhabarmal Sharma Award for journalism in 1999. His proposal for study included impact of mining on ground water level; impact on agriculture, soil degradation and land use; the displacement of local people and possible decline of living standards of the people in the area.


 
Book Review
State of India’s Environment: 6th Citizen's report
Rich Lands, Poor People: Is Sustainable Mining Possible.

Source: Mint
Date: Mon, Sep 17, 2007
URL: http://www.livemint.com/2007/09/17011346/Technology-fuels-30-fewer-job.html


Technology fuels 30% fewer jobs amid soaring commodity prices India continues to have a disproportionately higher number of workers than other mining nations

Maitreyee Handique
New Delhi
Thanks to technology, total employment in India’s formal mining industry has decreased by 30% in the last decade although mineral production, fuelled by the commodities boom, has jumped threefold, says a new study. But India continues to have a disproportionately large number of workers in mines in relation to mineral revenues, when compared with most other mining nations.

Employment has fallen from 710,000 lakh to 550,000 lakh between 1996 and 2004, primarily because of increased use of machinery and automation, according to data in a report compiled by the advocacy group, Centre for Science & Environment. The report will be formally released in October. The 350-page State of the Environment Report shows that value of production, including metallic and non-metallic minerals and fossil fuels, has tripled from Rs25,000 crore in 1993 to Rs84,000 crore last year.

Comparing global employment practices and despite the overall reduction, the study says India has more employees for every $1 billion (Rs4,050 core) in revenue from mineral production, than key mining countries Canada, Australia and South Africa.

“India provides 30,000 jobs for ever $1 billion revenue,” says Chandra Bhushan, who co-authored the paper with Monali Zeya Hazra. “It’s still the largest employer.” The other three countries employ an average of only 2,000 people for $1 billion dollar revenue.

The report also predicts that local struggles in many mineral-rich districts, which also have high poverty rates, will pose a serious challenge to the mining sector.

About 40% of the top 50 surveyed mineral producing districts are affected by local extremist forces, including naxalism. The states most affected by armed resistance are Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh.

Nearly 31 of the 50 top mineral-rich districts that produce coal and bulk minerals, such as iron ore, limestone and bauxite, fall under the 115 most backward districts category. Lagging behind in human development index and economic backwardness are Orissa with 27 districts out of 30, Jharkhand with 19 out of 22 and the entire state of Chhattisgarh, barring one district.

Orissa has a quarter of the country’s iron assets, with an estimated reserves of four billion tonnes. But its largest iron ore producing district of Keonjhar ranks 24th out of the state’s 30 districts in human development index. Various parameters such as poverty rate, infant mortality, literacy and per capita income were used to measure social and economic progress.

Many of these states with vast mineral resources have higher forest cover at 40% than the national average of 18%. A total of 0.75 million hectares been leased out for mining in the country, the study notes.

The study is coming at a time when the Centre and states are engaged in a debate whether investors should obtain a captive mine to set up a manufacturing plant, particular steel mills. This is the heart of a controversy over the new mineral policy, which says “value addition” should not be criteria for mine development. States, meanwhile, want to usher in investment by handing out captive mines to generate employment.

The report also states that coal producing districts have a better human development index than iron ore producing districts. Coal mines, which are led by government companies, were the highest employer at 410,000 in 2003. Iron ore miners had 35,023 people on payroll during the period.

The report also highlights that poor regulation of air quality and mines inspections, and non-existent guidelines for mineral transport and watershed conservation, will remain problems for the mining sector.


 
Experts and Activists
SP_Banerjee.jpgProf. S. P. Banerjee, AISM, B.Sc. (Hons.) Mining, M.Eng., Ph.D (Sheffield). Former Director, Indian School of Mines. Past President, MGMI, Kolkata. Former Member, Supervision and Monitoring Team, World Bank’s Coal Sector Environmental and Social Mitigation Project. Former Member, Expert Committee (Mining) of MoEF, Govt. of India.

Contact:
sakti.banerjee@gmail.com
 
A_Chikkatur.jpgDr. Ananth Chikkatur is a Research Fellow in the STPP and ENRP's Energy Technology Innovation Policy project. He has been working with the Indian Planning Commission on a project to assess the Indian coal and coal-power sectors. His research interests include technology innovation, cleaner coal-power technologies, energy efficiency, small-scale/rural energy systems, and the politics of climate change.
Contact: ananth_chikkatur@harvard.edu
 
R_Rebbapragada.jpgRavi Rebbapragada is the Executive Director of Samata and the Chairperson of Mines, Minerals & People. He has been active in working with tribal people for 22 years now and has been instrumental in winning the landmark Samata Judgment in the Supreme Court of India in 1997".

Contact:
samataindia@gmail.com
 
R_Sreedhar.jpgSreedhar, currently the Managing Trustee of Environics Trust, is also the convenor of the New Delhi Centre of mines minerals & PEOPLE. Sreedhar is formally trained in Geology and Risk Management and has been involved with institutional development as co-founder of several environmental and community organisations for over two decades.

Contact:
environics@gmail.com   or   mmpdelhi@yahoo.co.in   or   environics@gmail.com
 
KL_Dutt.jpgKuntala Lahiri-Dutt is a Fellow at the Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program at The Australian National University. Kuntala has extensively researched the environmental and social impacts of the coal mining industry in India. Her research interests include coal mining and community development, and informal mining as a livelihood in developing countries.

Contact: kuntala.lahiri-dutt@anu.edu.au
 
Gurdeep.jpgProf. Gurdeep Singh is head, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering & Centre of Mining Environment at the Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad. He has been worked on several World Bank-aided projects and Coal India Limited on environmental management capacity building for the mining sector. He has organised over 70 executive development programs on the environmental aspects of mining.
Contact: s_gurdeep2001@yahoo.com
 
Biswajit.jpgBiswajit Mohanty, winner of the Sanctuary-ABN AMRO Wildlife Service Award in 2001, runs the Wildlife Society of Orissa, is the Honorary Wildlife Warden for the Dhenkanal Forest Division and the coordinator for Operation Kachhapa, an ambitious sea turtle conservation programme.


Contact:
biswajit_m@vsnl.com
 
Neri_de_Souza.jpgPhilip Neri de Souza is a member of the Society of Salesians of Don Bosco, an international religious institution that works on education, empowerment and development of marginalized youth, street children and rural development. He is also a member of the executive committee of Mines, Minerals & People (MM&P), working to voice concerns of neglected tribal communities of remote villages in South Goa.
Contact: neri244@rediffmail.com
 
YK_Saxena.jpgDr. Y.K. Saxena is Vice President, Ambuja Cements and looking after the corporate environment cell. His responsibility includes overall environmental management for the cement plants and mines. CSE had adjudged him the "Best Environmental Manager of India, 2003 " for his contribution in greening the cement industry.

Contact:
yks@ambujamail.com   or   envdel@ambujamail.com
 
Mahesh_Patil.jpgMahesh K. Patil is general manager (environment) at Sesa Goa Ltd. an iron-ore mining company based in Goa. As in-charge of mine land reclamation, his responsibilities include land reclamation, restoring the productivity of agricultural land affected by the mining waste, and developing community programmes for those affected around mining areas.

Contact:
mpatil@sesagoa.com
 
Achyut.jpg Achyut Das, a social worker with over 20 years experience in rural and tribal development, was member of the State Planning Board from 1991-1994 and has also held memberships in numerous state and national-level committees. Das has played a crucial role in influencing state policy on tribal development and is widely known for his unequivocal stand on human rights of indigenous communities.
Contact: achyutdas@agragamee.org   or   achyuta@gmail.com   or   fok@rediffmail.com
 
Shriprakash.jpgShriprakash is one of the founder members of JAOR - Jharkhandi Organisation Against Radiation, which is fighting for the rights of the locals in and around Jadugoda (East Singhbaum dist., Jharkhand), where the Uranium Corporation of India Limited has been operating for the past 40 years. He is also a film maker and activist, using the visual media to bring about change.

Contact:
prakash.shri@gmail.com
 
Kanchi_Kohli.jpgKanchi Kohli is a social and environmental activist who has been working on environment and forest clearance issues, and their impact on local communities and biodiversity. Her articles powerfully articulate the current impacts of the implementation of policies and laws, including the National Environmental Policy, Environment Impact Assessment and the Biological Diversity Act.

Contact:
kvdelhi@vsnl.net   or   kanchikohli@gmail.com
 
Madhumita_Dutta.jpgMadhumita Dutta is an activist working on issues of corporate accountability, justice and environmental health. Her research and investigations support community led campaigns across the country for justice, rights over natural resources, clean environment and health, safe livelihood with dignity, including occupational health issues.

Contact:
madhu.dutta@gmail.com
 
Sanjay_Raj.jpgDr Sanjay Raj has expertise as a consultant in the fields of Geology, natural resource management, environmental studies, EIA & EMP studies, groundwater studies, drawing up mining plans & mineral exploration, including remote sensing. His interests also span watershed management, rainwater harvesting, wastewater recycling, among others.

Contact:
drsanjayraj@satyam.net.in
 
Patrik_Oskarsson.jpgDr Patrik Oskarsson is a researcher at the School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK. His present research is examining governance issues and the current efforts to establish bauxite mines and refineries in the Scheduled Areas in Andhra Pradesh. Patrik was earlier associated with CSE in Delhi and Samatha in Hyderabad.

Contact: p.oskarsson@uea.ac.uk
 
R C Kataria is a senior environmental engineer with the Central Pollution Control Board. His technical expertise includes the development & implementation of environmental standards for integrated iron & steel industry, stone crushers, coal mining, assessment of environmental problems of Aravali & preparing action plans.
Contact: cpcb@alpha.nic.in   or   kataria14001@yahoo.com
 
Ashok_Mohapatra.jpgAshok Mahapatra is editor-in-chief, naxatranews.com. Armed with years of experience in the media, Ashok firmly believes that the media needs to do more for Orissa’s brand-building. Presenting an image of Orissa that is beyond the stereotypes is a dream he has nurtured for long.


Contact:
ashmohapatra@gmail.com
 
SK_Carr.jpgSamit Kumar Carr is founder and secretary general of Occupational Safety & Health Association of Jharkhand, (OSHAJ),. He is also executive council member & convener of Thematic Area Mine Closure Workers. He was instrumental in forming stakeholder committees for safe mining, proper implementation of mine closure plans and reducing environmental degradation and occurrences of mine mishaps.
Contact: oshajindia@gmail.com   or   bapisdoc@yahoo.com
 
Manshi_Asher.jpgManshi Ahser is an independent researcher-activist. As a part of the National Centre for Advocacy Studies, she was involved in researching how industrial and mining projects affect livelihoods and environmental rights of local communities, specifically in the central-eastern belt of the country. This included detailed documentation on the issue of iron ore mining and sponge iron industries, specifically in Orissa.
Contact: manshi_asher@yahoo.co.in   or   manshi.asher@gmail.com
 
Asha_Krishnaswamy.jpgAsha Krishnaswamy, special correspondent, Deccan Herald, is a Bangalore-based journalist and functions as chief reporter heading a team of 14 reporters. Her reporting beats include development, politics, education, environment and civic issues. At the CSE seminar, she highlighted how the government has locked its horns in Bellary mine owners for personal gain.

Contact:
ashakrishnaswamy@deccanherald.co.in
 
MP_-Narayanan.jpgDr M P Narayanan is a mining professional with over 40 years of experience. He retired from public service as Chairman, Coal India Limited. He has also served as Chairman, Neyvelli Lignite Corporation Limited and Chairman, Environmental Appraisal Committee for Industries, Ministry Environment and Forests, Government of India.

Contact:
mpn88@hotmail.com
 
Rana_Sengupta.jpg Rana Sengupta, a social worker by profession, has been managing Mine Labour Protection Campaign (MLPC) for over 5 years. MLPC is working in ten districts of Rajasthan and one district in Gujarat-Banaskatha to ensure economic stability, rights and dignity of mineworkers, who constitute a vast majority of the rural poor.

Contact:
rana@minelabour.org  or   mlpc@satyam.net.in
 
Ashim Roy is the general secretary of New Trade Union Initiative, a national federation of non-partisan left-democratic trade unions in the formal and informal sectors, which represent workers in agriculture, forest, construction, mining, manufacturing and services.
Contact: ashim_cmp@yahoo.com
 
B Babu Rao is the former controller of mines, Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur, Maharashtra.
 
Himanshu Upadhyay is an independent researcher working on public finance and accountability issues, and is also associated with Intercultural Resources, New Delhi.
Contact: info@icrindia.org  or   himanshugreen@gmail.com
 
Prafulla Samantra is a social and environmental activist deeply involved in issues concerning tribal communities and the environment. He, together with his group, have been involved in voicing the concerns of tribals affected by mining activities in Orissa. He is also the President of Lok Shakti Abhiyan, Orissa unit.
Contact: psamantara@rediffmail.com
 
Ranjan Sahai is the controller of mines, Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur, Maharashtra.
Contact: ranjan.sahai@rediffmail.com
 
Yousuf Beg is the secretary of a grassroot NGO, Patthar Khadan Mazdoor Sangh, based in Panna, Madhya Pradesh.
Contact: pkms-panna@yahoo.co.in
 
M Bhagyalakhsmi is the director of Sakhi, a local NGO based at Hospet, Karnataka, working for the upliftment of women artisans from rural and tribal areas.
Contact: sakhihyka@gmail.com  or   sakhi.hyka@rediffmail.com

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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