A facility (it may include user interface as well) that, in absence of sewerage network, collects and fully/partially treats the black water to allow for safe reuse or disposal of generated effluent. The solids may get collected in the system with time and would need frequent desludging and treatment.
A facility where domestic wastewater (both black and grey water) is treated close to the source at community or institutional scale to allow for safe local reuse or disposal of generated effluent.
A facility where the septage and/or faecal sludge is received (by vacuum trucks or otherwise) as an input and gets fully treated to allow for safe reuse or disposal of generated output (both solid and liquid). Faecal sludge can also be treated along with sewage at a sewage treatment plant (STP) or with solid waste at a waste processing unit.
A facility where interventions are done at the receiving waterbody (like lakes, ponds and rivers) and/or open drains/nullahs itself for rejuvenation of the receiving water bodies.
Sewage is untreated wastewater which contains faeces and urine, this wastewater generally gets conveyed through the sewerage system. Grey water from the kitchen and bathroom also becomes part of sewage.
Septage or septic tank waste refers to the partially treated matter stored in and pumped out of a septic tank. In other words, faecal sludge from septic tanks is known as septage.
It is the solid or settled contents of pit latrines and septic tanks. It is raw or partially digested, slurry or in a semisolid form, it results from the collection, storage or treatment of combinations of excreta and black water, with or without grey water.
As this query is location specific, you can contact us
Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs issued the National Policy on Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) in early2017. The policy aims to facilitate nationwide implementation of FSSM services in all ULBsand to set the context, priorities, and direction for safe and sustainable sanitation in eachand every household in India.8 Some key features of the policy are as follows:
• State-level guidelines, framework, objectives, timelines and implementation plans toaddress septage management
• Formulating strategy at the Central level to initiate capacity-building for training on FSSM.
• Creating a sanitation benchmark framework which can be used by ULBs to develop adatabase and registry of certified onsite sanitation system, and a robust reporting format
• Funding for facilitation of FSSM projects and encouragement to increase public privatepartnerships (PPP).
• Achieving integrated citywide sanitation along with safe disposal
• Revised service-level benchmarking for sanitation
Yes, the Bureau of Indian standards provides standards for septic tanks. Can be found in Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment—Part A: Engineering. CPHEEO, 2012
Work is still in progress where we are trying to address these questions and make the situation finer in nature
Yes, the Bureau of Indian standards provides standards for reuse of treated wastewater. Can be found in Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment—Part A: Engineering. CPHEEO, 2012
Co-treatment means treating the two waste streams together, in this context when faecal sludge is treated along with sewage at a sewage treatment plant or when faecal sludge is treated along with solid waste at a waste processing unit. Whereas co-composting is when pre-treated faecal sludge is composted along with segregated municipal solid waste in appropriate ratio to improve the treatment efficiency and the quality of the end product.
Yes, when one does co-composting of faecal sludge with segregated organic waste by mixing it in proper ratio, the end product is a good soil conditioner. As on one hand faecal sludge has good moisture and nitrogen content and on the other hand organic solid waste is high in carbon content. For more details visit here
The STP can co-treat faecal sludge only if it has spare capacity and when the characteristics of faecal sludge are optimal for co-treatment. As of now in Indian STPs it is being tried by hit and trial method. For more information on co-treatment visit
Small bore sewer conveys only septic tank effluent with no solid. It is also known as solid-free sewer. As the effluent is solid-free the sewer has much smaller diameter as compared to conventional sewerage system. These sewers require much less water and don’t need self-cleansing velocity. This system is much cheaper as compared to conventional sewerage system as it needs small pipe diameter and shallow soil excavation. This system can be used to convey septic tank effluent to the nearest treatment facility.
Under this section the user can search for a suitable option of treatment of excreta as per the requirement relation to the number of people the technology is aimed to serve.
Under this section the user can search for a suitable option of treatment of excreta by capital cost, operating cost, area available.
Under this section the user can search for an implemented sub-type of technology. This would help the user in estimating whether the possibility of implementation in their area too.
Faecal Sludge Management is the process of managing all the stages of sanitation chain, where toilets are connected to on-site sanitation systems. The stages include containment, emptying, transport, treatment and end-use/disposal of faecal sludge. FSM is not just about creating infrastructure for each stage, it also includes creating enabling environment for system to run smoothly and sustainably. For more information refer Practitioner's Guide on Septage Management
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Technology is the head category while sub technologies are the different types of technologies under the said category. Refer to question 18 and question 19 for the definitions
Search by location gives the user the option to find technologies implemented in different geographic locations.
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