What is Sanitation?
In order to address the above challenges, Government of India announced the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP)in 2008 with an overall goal to transform urban India into community-driven, totally sanitized, and healthy cities and towns. The NUSP aspires that, “All Indian cities and towns become totally sanitized, healthy and livable and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all their citizens with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women.”
The NUSP defines sanitation as safe management of human excreta (including its safe confinement, treatment, & disposal and associated hygiene-related practices). It further recognises that integral solutions are needed to take account of other elements of environmental sanitation, i.e. solid waste management (SWM); generation of industrial and other specialized / hazardous wastes; drainage and management of drinking water supply. The NUSP emphasises that a fully Sanitized City must achieve a wider set of positive sanitation outcomes including:
1) Elimination of Open Defecation
2) Elimination of manual scavenging and ensuring safety of sanitation workers
3) Safe management of municipal wastewater and storm water
4) Recycling of treated wastewater for non-potable applications
5) Full and safe collection and disposal of municipal solid waste
6) Inclusive, efficient and sustainable service delivery in all sanitation sectors
7) Improved Public Health Outcomes and Environmental Standards
Therefore each state and city needs to formulate its own sanitation strategy and their respective city sanitation plan respectively in overall conformity to the National Policy.