Conducting field level investigations
Based on the decided sample size for each ward, the team can conduct household surveys with a set of pre-decided questions for each sanitary sector. Please find below a template for conducting surveys at household level. You can edit the surveys as per the characteristics of the city.
2. Non-household surveys (institutions)
Institutions like hotels, restaurants, schools, hospitals, monasteries, government buildings etc fall into this category. It is important to include institutions in the overall survey model as they are a significant part of an urban centre. Please find below a template for conducting surveys with non-households (institutions). You can edit the surveys as per the characteristics of the city.
3. Focus Group Discussions
These type of interviews/ surveys helps with baseline data collection for any research/study. Researchers come to understand diverse perspectives on a common issue and the causes for such beliefs/perspectives.
Proposed structure for FGDs -
Ideal time: 45 mins to 90 mins
No of participants: 8-12 participants with some common thread/demographic variable (depending on the topic); also important to not have somebody in the group where participants can't speak freely or their answers might be biased [read: politically correct/excessively negative].
- You should have an interview guide with thematic questions for the FGD for that particular topic.
- Before the actual FGD begins, please introduce yourself and your reasons for being there clearly, ensure voluntary consent. Also record some basic demographic variables like gender, age, occupation from the participants.
- Two people should be present: Facilitator and Moderator/Observer who conduct the FGD, preferably in the local language.
- FGDs should happen in a space where the participants feel comfortable - physically [eg. if too hot, indoors] and mentally [they should not feel discomforted or threatened]- preferably in a circle. The idea is to let people have discussions from which content arises; this isn't a group interview where we question people individually!
Facilitator - introduces the topic and eases the group into a discussion about the theme for which they have gathered [the facilitator can use the interview guide in which the central themes/questions for the FGD are already jotted down].
Moderator – is responsible for recording key issues, observations like any biases or discomfort in answering a certain question, or if some people in the group are silent, some are more vocal, a moderator has to ensure that everybody participates and no one ideology or few people dictate the FGD to ensure that the discussions don't deviate from the purpose.
Key pointers for conducting FGDS-
- Be non-judgmental, don't interrupt when a a participant is talking (especially in a leading way); intervene if people are cutting one another. Everybody’s opinions matter and you need to ensure that.
- Use your head to move throughout the circle. Even if an answer has been given, ask follow up questions like - anything else? Would anybody wish to add to it?
- Maintain eye contact with your participants. You don't have to get overly personal but show that you are genuinely interested in their opinions.
4. Key Informant Interviews
Key informant interviews are qualitative in-depth interviews with people who know what is going on in the community. The purpose of key informant interviews is to collect information from a wide range of people—including community leaders, professionals, or residents—who have firsthand knowledge about the community.