Indian city authorities have traditionally practised centralized management of municipal solid waste (MSW) to institute circularity for maximum resource recovery. Nearly half of our waste is organic and thus biodegradable. If not segregated and appropriately managed, this organic waste can contaminate air, water, and soil.
Because of improperly segregated and managed waste dumpsites near cities are brimming with mixed waste and are pollution hubs. Managing waste near its source and adopting appropriate decentralized technology options is therefore vital.
This report presents available technologies for decentralized treatment of organic waste practised at the household, neighborhood, ward, and cluster of wards—or zone—levels based on the quantum of waste generation. It explains the economy of each technology option for composting and bio-methanation suitable for urban local bodies and various stakeholders. As the current arrangement of waste management has had limited success, the report also recommends policy adjustments to promote decentralized technology and ensure sustenance of the value chain to augment a sustainable market for city compost.