Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant at Dhenkanal, Odisha





CDD society, BORDA, CPR,
Practical Action, OSVSWA

Population Covered


Capital Expenditure

INR 2.9 crore
(408652.152 USD)

Area of installation

10117.1 sq. m (2.5 acres)

Design Capacity

27,000 litres/day

Funding Agency

The Bill and Melinda
Gates Foundation (BMGF)
and Arghyam

Operational since

26thOctober 2018

Implementing Agency

Practical Action
& CDD Society

Design Capacity

27,000 litres/day

Sources of Faecal Sludge

Pits and Septic Tanks





Cost (INR)

FSTP Operations

27 lakhs/year (38,021 USD)

Truck Maintenance

Location of technology
Google maps location: 20°36'41.2"N 85°36'24.6"E
Project Background
Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP) Dhenkanal is the Odisha`s first FSTP to serve the purpose of completing the sanitation value chain. It was built by collective action of sanitation alliances with Dhenkanal Municipality and Government of Odisha. The project is add sustainability to the ODF status by closing the sanitation value chain. The work in Dhenkanal was initiated in 2015. The treatment plant is part of a wider set of activities and has been strongly backed by all local stakeholders, with the state government providing the municipality with new vehicles to help increase rates of pit emptying. It forms an important pillar of the city sanitation plan that the project also supported.
About Dhenkanal
Treatment Process

The main treatment steps followed in this FSTP are solid-liquid separation, stabilization, dewatering of sludge and pathogen removal. The separated liquid component is also treated to meet discharge standards. The faecal sludge is conveyed to the FSTP through a desludging trucks. The treatment modules for solid components are: Feeding Tank (FT) with screen chamber, Stabilization Reactor, Stabilization Tank (ST), Unplanted Sludge Drying Bed (SDB) with Green House Solar Drier Roof (GHSD). Treatment modules for liquid components are: Integrated Settler, Anaerobic Baffled Reactor with filter chambers, Planted Gravel Filter (PGF) and Percolation pit. The treatment system also consists of a co-composting unit where the dried sludge from the SDB is composted with municipal solid waste.

Integrating Truck operations and FSTP operations
One agency manages both collection/transportation of faecal sludge and the operation of treatment plant, which means ULB has only a single point of contact for managing the entire system. The system is
Maintenance tasks

  • Supervision: The FSTP is supervised by a manager with an operator employed permanenly for day to day operations.
  • Desludging of BGD, ST, SR, ABR
  • Cleaning of filter material at PGF and SDB
  • Sale of Faecal sludge: Treated FS is sold as soil conditioner, revenue generated is accrued to ULBs account.

Operation tasks

  • Cleaning of screen chamber
  • Operation of valves
  • Regular desludging of the stabilization tank and stabilization reactor
  • Removal of dry sludge from SDB
  • Turning of compost heap

Operational Model for Faecal Sludge Management

  • The operation and maintenance of the desludging truck and FSTP was integrated and tendered. This eased the process of managing and monitoring implementation of FSSM in the town by the Municipality.
  • The integrated O&M service provider was chosen through a quality and cost based selection.
  • Blue Water Company a start-up in the FSM services arena was awarded this integrated contract for one year.

Collection of Faecal Sludge

  • Demand based collection: easy to access to desludging services through a toll free number, managed by the O&M service provider. Service provided within 48 hours of demand placed.
  • Cost: INR 1,000 per trip within city limits.
  • Payments: Digital payments are possible via Point of Scale payments along with cash.
  • Tracking: GPS tracking vacuum trucks.
  • MIS: A database on collection and transportation is maintained regularly and shared with ULB periodically

Operational model of Faecal Sludge Management in Dhenkanal

The system (as depicted below) helps the ULB monitor the handling of faecal sludge the sanitation value chain seamlessly, enabling them to provide the highest quality to service to the town of Dhenkanal.

Current Status and Learnings

The plant is operational since October 2018.

  • The success and sustainability of a project like this depends on a large extent on the interest and influence of local leaders.
  • Context is important: operational models for each project need to be tailored to suit the local context.
  • Standards and protocols: lack of standards and protocols for faecal sludge or septage treatment by the Pollution Control Board is often cause delays and road blocks in implementation.

Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination Society
Survey No.205,Opp. Beedi Workers Colony, Kommaghatta Road, Bandemath
Kengeri Satellite  Town,  Bengaluru,  Karnataka 560 060  E : bangalore@cddindia.org
P : +91 80 2848 6700/ 2194/ 2274/ 2262 | F : +9J 80 2848 2144 |

Last Updated: October 2019