I ndia adopted nationwide Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emissions standards on 1 April 2020. This direct leapfrog from BS-IV to BS-VI emissions standards has led to a paradigm shift in emission-control systems, especially in diesel vehicles. As a result, compared to BS-IV emissions standards, particulate emissions limits for BS-VI diesel cars have dropped by at least 82–93 per cent and nitrogen oxides by at least 68 per cent. Similarly, the particulate emissions limit from diesel trucks and buses is lower by at least 50–67 per cent. Also, the emissions gap between petrol and diesel cars has narrowed down.