Tanzania, located in eastern Africa, is a low-income country heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for more than 30 per cent GDP and 67 per cent workforce of the country. The country has been blessed with abundant minerals reserves that include gold, diamonds, precious stones, coal, and uranium.The government has envisaged a grand programme to develop the mineral sector. The sector is one of the most regulated one, a fact clear from the exhaustive and comprehensive list of mining and environment-related acts and regulations. However, implementation of policies on ground is far from satisfactory. Tanzania lacks manpower and institutional capacity to ensure effective compliance, inspection and enforcement. The mining sector also lacks guidelines, manuals and exposures to international best practices.
The Mining Act, enacted in 2010, is the centrepiece legislation governing the sector. Subsequently, five regulations were also enacted to regulate the sector. Earlier acts and regulations were seen as industry-centric and focussed on boosting investment in the sector. In 2017, the government amended the Mining Act to address shortcomings and strike a balance between interests of the industry and society. The new amendment act incorporates provisions for corporate social responsibility, local content plans, statement of integrity pledge, insurance against damages, losses of environment, community etc. to make the sector more environmentally and socially responsible.