Delhi is reeling under high levels of deadly ozone, says latest CSE analysis
May 29, 2009
New Delhi May 29, 2009: Delhi has been witnessing an unprecedented ozone build-up this summer, says a latest analysis done by Centre for Science and Environment (CSE). Nearly every day in the month of April, ozone levels have exceeded the standards proposed by the Union ministry of environment and forests (these standards are yet to be notified).
Ozone is known to be extremely hazardous for human health. According to the researchers behind this analysis, the ozone build-up is the result of a deadly combination of high pollution levels and an unusually hot and sunny summer.
According to Anumita Roychowdhury, associate director, CSE and head of the Centre’s air pollution unit, “ozone is not emitted directly from any source. Other pollutants, primarily nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons that are spewed by the growing number of vehicles and other sources in the city, react in the atmosphere under the influence of sunlight and high temperature to form ozone.”
“When ambient temperatures and sunlight remain high for several days -- as it has happened this summer -- and the air is relatively stagnant, ozone builds up fast,” she adds.
What has CSE found?
CSE has analysed ozone data generated by the Central Pollution Control Board in its three automatic monitoring stations in Delhi – Siri Fort, the ITO traffic intersection and the Delhi College of Engineering (DCE) in Bawana -- from January till May 17, 2009.
The data has been assessed in relation to the proposed ozone standards in India. There is a wide variation across the months, but a clear pattern is easily discernible. The CSE analysis throws up the following scary facts:
Why should we be worried about ozone?
Ozone is an extremely harmful substance: just a few hours of exposure to it can trigger serious health problems. It worsens symptoms of asthma, leads to lung function impairment and damages lung tissues. Chest pain, coughing, nausea, headaches and chest congestion are common symptoms. It can even worsen heart disease, bronchitis and emphysema. It increases emergency medicare visits and hospital admissions related to respiratory diseases.
Scientists inform that ozone is a powerful oxidizer, which means it can damage cells in a process akin to rusting. Children and the elderly are at special risk. International studies have also found a strong association between ozone and daily premature death counts; deaths related to ozone exposure are more likely among people with pre-existing diseases.
Ozone is included in the daily smog and health alert programmes in countries such as Mexico and the US. In Mexico City, the elderly, children and those suffering from respiratory and cardiac problems are advised to stay indoors when levels of ozone go up. The US-based National Research Council, part of the National Academies of Science, has recommended that local health authorities should keep the harmful effects of ozone in mind when advising people to stay indoors on polluted days.
What should Delhi do?
With the upcoming Commonwealth Games, Delhi will have to be even more careful as athletes are more vulnerable to air pollution -- especially to ozone pollution. Reports show that with every breath, athletes typically take in 10 to 20 times as much air, and thus pollutants, as sedentary people do.
A study carried out in the US, led by the University of Southern California and reported in the Lancet, has found that in high-ozone areas the relative risk of developing asthma in children playing three or more sports was more compared to children playing no sports.
“Delhi must act immediately,” says Roychowdhury. “Urgent steps are needed to control pollutants that help form ozone in the air.” The CSE analysis recommends the following:
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