The Bali Action Plan agreed upon a comprehensive process in order to reach an agreed outcome and adopt a decision at its 15th session (Copenhagen) on “a shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emission reductions, to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention, in accordance with the provisions and principles of the Convention, in particular the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and taking into account social and economic conditions and other relevant factors”.
This work plan is being discussed under Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA).
Quick summaryIn terms of what the ‘shared vision’ should be, developing countries such as China and Brazil stand firmly by the UNFCCC; such a vision can only be guided by the principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’, so maintaining the legal distinction between Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 countries.
Japan, echoing what many developed countries want, wishes to abolish this distinction. It wants a new protocol beyond 2012 or an amended Kyoto Protocol so that all countries take responsible actions.
China (misc.5)Long-term vision is to be guided by the ultimate objective of the Convention and the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” between developed and developing countries, with developed countries taking the lead in reducing their emissions of greenhouse gases, while ensuring development rights and spaces for developing countries.
While it is desirable to share views on the long-term global goal for emission reductions, it is most important to firstly set the mid-term emission reduction target for developed country Parties. Only with such a mid-term target being clearly determined, is it meaningful to talk about any long-term goals for emission reductions.
European Union (misc.2)International community should pursue a pathway compatible with the limitation of global average temperature increase to not more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. This will require a reduction in global emissions of at least 50% from 1990 levels by 2050, which means that global greenhouse gas emissions will have to peak by 2020 and decline thereafter.
This means that by 2050, global average greenhouse gas emissions per capita should be reduced to around two tonnes CO2 equivalent, and that, in the long term, gradual convergence of national per capita greenhouse gas emissions between developed and developing countries would be necessary, taking into account national circumstances.
India (October 17, 2008)Equity must be central to the way forward. This requires that the any stabilization target should be achieved on the basis of the principle that each human being has an equal right to the common atmospheric resource accounting also for the historical responsibility of developed countries in building the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Developing countries cannot be denied access to their equitable share of the global atmospheric resource and carbon space. Equitable sharing of the carbon space, therefore, needs to be urgently agreed to by the international community. India’s per-capita emissions will not exceed those of developed countries.
A paradigm of convergence of per-capita emissions of developing and developed countries, also accounting for the historical responsibility of developed countries, provides an equitable approach to fair burden sharing.
The Right to Development must be fully respected in the climate change regime.
Any stabilization target, howsoever ambitious, cannot be misused to seek a revision of the provisions of the Convention -- principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. If achievement of a global stabilization goal necessitates mitigation measures in developing countries, the latter must be compensated by the developed countries to the extent of the full incremental costs.
It is a matter of deep concern that the emissions of Annex I countries have been steadily increasing since 2000, contrary to the provisions of the Convention. UNFCCC data reveals that total Annex I emissions rose from 17,719 Tg CO2 equivalent in 2000 to 18, 182 Tg CO2 equivalent in 2005.
Moreover, there have also been increases in terms of per-capita emissions in the Annex I countries. This alarming trend must be immediately reversed. All Annex I countries should adopt deep emission reduction targets for the medium term based not only on technology options but also by adopting specific policies and measures that promote sustainable patterns of consumption and production, including life-style changes.
Japan (misc.5)Wants a new protocol beyond 2012 or amend Kyoto Protocol so that all countries take responsible actions.
All Parties should adopt the long-term goal of achieving at least 50% reduction of global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2050 as a shared vision. Toward realizing this goal, the peaking-out of the global GHG emissions in the next 10 to 20 years should be pursued. ( note: no base year suggested )
The definition of Annex 1 countries should be changed based on GDP, per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, future emissions etc. It further wants to differentiate within developing countries by dividing them into three categories:
Based on the above categorization of developing countries, those countries under Category 1 (expected to take mitigation actions) must take binding targets for “GHG emissions per unit” or “energy consumption per unit” in major sectors and binding targets for economy-wide “GHG emissions per GDP” or “energy consumption per GDP”.
Other developing countries will be required to submit voluntary national action plan, including policies and measures for mitigation, to the Conference of the Parties. The voluntary national action plan should be reviewed periodically.
Japan wants a graduation mechanism in place to move developing countries from based on economic and emissions criteria so that they can take binding commitments in the future.
US (misc.2)“Unlike other elements of the Bali Action Plan (e.g., mitigation, financing), there is less clarity when it comes to determining the meaning/purpose of the “long-term vision.”
Brazil (misc.5)The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities manifests itself in the very structure of the Convention. It is based on elements such as distinct historical responsibilities regarding global warming, distinct financial and technological capabilities and distinct national development challenges.
A shared vision should reiterate the established legal distinction between the obligations of Annex I and non-Annex I Parties.
Brazil considers a global goal as an important element of a shared vision. It should reflect the best available science, particularly IPCC AR 4 and recommendations therein. This includes ambitious mid-term goals for Annex I Parties of at least 25% to 40% reductions, regarding 1990 levels, by 2020.
(a) There is need to take into account different national circumstances (Canada, MISC.1/Add.2; New Zealand, MISC.5), including specific needs and special circumstances of developing countries (Rwanda, MISC.1; Argentina, Brazil, Singapore, MISC.5), of those particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, and of those who will bear a disproportionate burden (Argentina, MISC.5), and to take into consideration the limitations faced by alternative-energy-disadvantaged countries (Singapore, MISC.5);
(b) Efforts by Parties should be comparable in relation to their capabilities and social and economic conditions. The establishment of key indicators for guidance in this regard would be helpful, to increase transparency and inspire trust (Iceland, MISC.1);
(c) A shared vision should reiterate the established legal distinction between the obligations of Annex I and non-Annex I Parties (Brazil, MISC.5);
(d) New sight on the differentiation among Parties is required (Australia, MISC.1/Add.2; New Zealand, Russian Federation, MISC.5), based on recent advances in scientific knowledge and changing social and economic situation in the world (United States, MISC.1; Russian Federation, MISC.5).
Specific proposals include development of:
(e) Developed countries should:
(f) Efforts by developing countries should be supported and enabled by technology and substantial financial support and capacity-building from developed countries in a reliable and predictable manner, and in accordance with the national circumstances and capability of the receiving countries (Norway, MISC.5);
(g) Financial and technological assistance from developed countries is essential to help developing countries make the switch to alternative energy sources (Singapore, MISC.5);
(h) An important equity factor for determining burden sharing is the principle of historical responsibility for climate change (Brazil, Turkey, MISC.5);
On the peaking time of global emissions, Parties proposed that they should peak:
On the quantification of a long-term global goal for emission reduction, Parties proposed that:
On contribution by different groups of countries to the achievement of the long-term goal, Parties proposed that:
(e) Developing countries should implement mitigation actions, supported by finance and technology, with a view to deviating emissions trends from the baseline (Brazil, MISC.5);
(f) For developing countries the only way to contribute to a long-term global goal for emissions reductions would be through the pursuit of sustainable development, that is, the integration of climate change considerations in socio-economic development planning (Philippines, MISC.1); emission reductions in these countries to meet any agreed global goal necessarily require support for technology development and transfer, capacity building and financing from developed countries (Argentina, MISC.5).