The fifth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP5) to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) was held from 25-29 April 2011, in Geneva, Switzerland. Over 700 participants, representing more than 125 governments, as well as intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and UN agencies, attended the meeting. COP5 considered several reports on activities within the Convention’s mandate and adopted over 30 decisions on, inter alia: listing endosulfan in Annex A of the Convention; financial and technical assistance; synergies; and endorsing seven new Stockholm Convention regional centres, in Algeria, Senegal, Kenya, South Africa, Iran, India and the Russian Federation. While some delegations expressed their disappointment at the lack of progress on the establishment of a compliance mechanism, as required under the Convention, and stressed the need to resolve this apparent impasse at COP6, most delegates departed the meeting satisfied that COP5 had been a success. The adoption of the decision to list endosulfan in Annex A was seen by non-governmental organization representatives as historic, indicating the Convention remains dynamic, and moving ever closer to its goal of protecting human health and the environment from POPs.