Bikaner city lies in the northwest region of Rajasthan state in northern India. The city is the administrative headquarters of Bikaner district. It was formerly the capital of the princely state of Bikaner. Situated in the middle of the Thar desert, it has hot desert climate with very little rainfall and extreme temperatures. In summers temperature can exceed 45 °C, and during the winters it may dip below freezing temperature (CII, 2015).
The population of city as per the Census 2011 is 644,406. The density of city is 4,157 persons per sq.km which is very high when compared to state average of 201 persons per sq.km. Total slum population is 121,855 representing 18.9% of the total population (Census of India, 2011).
Municipal boundary has been chosen for the current study. It comprises of an area of 155 sq.km (BMC, 2015).