Tumkur (also known as Tumakuru) is located in the state of Karnataka at a distance of 70 km to the northwest of the capital city, Bangalore. It is the district headquarters. The city is surrounded by hills (DMA, 2012).
The population of city as per the Census, 2011 is 305,821. The density of city is 6,292 persons per sq.km which is very high when compared to state average of 319 persons per sq.km. Slum population is 52,429, which is 17% of the total population (DMA, 2012).
Municipal boundary has been chosen for the current study. It comprises of an area of 48.60 sq.km (DMA, 2012).
City falls in the southern plateau region of India. The temperature starts rising from January and peaks in May, around 400C is common in Tumkur (DMA, 2012).